EnvironmentalManagementPlan

1. Negative ecological and social impacts

 

The implementation of subproject No APP-SSG-16/0645F “Organization of production of original fragrant antibacterial detergents on the basis of essential oils”, belonging to B + category, suggests the emergence of negative ecological and social impacts. Production of soaps with antibacterial activity requires the use of hazardous chemical substances and leads to the formation of production wastes. It is not recommended to use especially harmful components such as chlorine, phosphates, polyphosphates, phosphonates, nitrates, synthetic surfactants, optical brighteners, nonylphenol, formaldehyde, zeolites, triclosan, particularly hazardous solvents and toxic substances in detergents production.

 

2. Mitigation measures

The following measures are directed at mitigation effects of potentially significant negative environmental impacts to acceptable level. Special designated areas and disposal routes of construction wastes will be assignedin order to prevent gathering of construction wastes. Storage hoppers for wastes gathering will be located, wastes will be transported using closed trays. Dyes with toxic ingredients or solvents or lead-based dyes in the course of construction works are not planned to be used. The responsibility for gathering and disposal of construction wastes belongs to specialized licensed companies. 

Environmental emission of hazardous substances (gases, dust, etc.) originating during assembly and welding will be limited by the supply of production workshop with ventilation system and special single drain sinks. Proper storage and transportation of flammable materials and hazardous substances (gas cylinders, solvents, paints, varnishes, glass- and slag wool) will help to prevent accidents.  

Location of basic equipment in the center of the room will help to minimize the noise level made by production equipment and construction tools. It is necessary to carry out sound isolation of "noisy" production workshops from other departments. The usage of acoustic hoods ensures the preservation of noise level less than 70 dB at a distance of 100 m.

Waste raw material is formed as a result of essential oils processing at the first stage of the project. The usage of waste materials for the isolation of other compounds at JSC "IRPH "Phytochemistry", i.e. the usage of complex, non-waste technologies of processing essential-oil raw material will solve the issue of secondary raw material recycling.

There is a risk of environmental pollution by hazardous chemical substances in preparation of soap primary components. To reduce the negative impact on water, land and air masses the use of highly dangerous and toxic substances is excluded. It is planned to take actions that will prevent water reservoirs and soil from getting pollutants. Supply and exhaust systems with filtration were installed. Wastes of enterprises in the surrounding area will be reduced due to the use of closed cycles.  

To localize environmental emissions of by-products as well as hazardous substances in case of an emergency and mixing of the primary components the introduction of following measures is suggested: the removal of by-products with the lowest possible risk to the environment; the use of water purification systems and air pollution control; the strict observance of process parameters; the implementation of measures to prevent emergencies. These measures should be taken during each work shift. 

Increasing amount of waste products boosts the cost of finished products and the risk of environmental pollution. There are a lot of soap wastes at grinding, shaping and cutting stages. The amount of soap wastes can be reduced by cleaning and recycling. The development and introduction of non-waste and low-waste technologies also contributes to wastes reduction.

During quality assurance of finished soap organic solvents are used. Toxic solvents (methanol, benzene) should be replaced by less toxic (acetone, ethanol). It is necessary to carry out actions to prevent the ingress of polluting solvents into water reservoirs and soil, and observe safety precautions to prevent fire and explosion.

Packing of soap results in the waste paper formation. To prevent the damage to the environment is possible by preventing its gathering, transferring to receiving center, recycling and salvaging. The places of gathering and disposal routes to designated areas will be assigned. Specialized licensed enterprises will be engaged in gathering and disposal of waste paper.  

Production of detergents is harmful for health and safety of employees. The use of personal protective equipment for personnel (gloves, glasses, face masks) will mitigate the damage. Additional monthly payment for hazardous working conditions and as sour-milk products are to be provided. Training courses will be conducted on compliance with industrial safety requirements at the workplace. Safety Engineer appointed at workplace is responsible for safety.

 

            3. Monitoring

At the place of carrying out minor construction works the amount of wastes is monitored visually. Workers carry out visual inspection during the construction works, gather wastes in special storage hoppers. Construction waste disposal is carried out by licensed companies.

Measuring the gas and dust emissions rate into the environment by special devices must be carried out at the place of production equipment and devices installation. This parameter should be monitored by production or independent accredited laboratories during and after the installation works.

During the commissioning works within 100 meters from construction site (on the side closest to the residential area) the noise level is measured by a noise analyser. The noise level should be measured once before the start-up of production workshop and every year during the operating period by production or independent accredited laboratories.

Visual inspection of the amount of waste material should be carried out after the preparation of essential oils. During the work shift employees shall collect and dry the waste raw material, then pass it on to JSC "IRPH "Phytochemistry" for the isolation of other compounds. 

In the process of basic substances preparation for soap production and mixing them in a mixer it is necessary to measure the by-products emissions as well as hazardous substances into the environment in case of an emergency. Measuring is done by production or independent accredited laboratories as per the environmental monitoring rules.

Visual inspection of soap tails should be conducted in areas of soap milling, molding and stamping. The amount of special wastes should be controlled by employees during the work shift. They should also monitor the amount of waste paper in packaging division. 

It is necessary to measure the environmental pollution level with harmful solvents at analytical quality control laboratory in the process of finished soap analysis. Safety Engineer must carry out monthly trainings on compliance with industrial safety requirements at all stages of work. Workers must have compulsory medical check-up every year.

 

4. Training and potential development

At the local level RGA "Department of Ecology in Karaganda Region of Committee for environmental management, control and state inspection in oil-and-gas complex of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan" is in control. It is expected to create environmental department or training personnel to implement environmental assessment recommendations.

Licensed utility companies are responsible for gathering and removal of construction wastes. The use of recycled materials in the course of complex processing is implemented by JSC "IRPH "Phytochemistry". Production or independent laboratories perform the following activities: measure by special devices the amount of polluting substances, gas, dust emissions into the environment, noise level in the production workshop. Project executors control the amount of construction wastes, used raw materials, production wastes and waste paper. Safety Engineer conducts trainings on compliance with industrial safety requirements. Medical institutions conduct annual medical check-ups of employees. 

 

5. Project implementation schedule and cost estimate

Schedule of measures implementation that should be taken in the framework of the project according to the subproject implementation plan.

 

Mitigation actions of project implementation

1 year

1 quarter

2 quarter

3 quarter

4 quarter

Visual control of the amount of construction waste

    ✓

    ✓

 

 

Measuring gas and dust emissions into the environment by special devices

 

 

 

Measuring noise level

 

 

     ✓

 

Visual control of the amount of used raw materials

 

 

 

      ✓

Measuring the level of environmental pollution with harmful chemicals

 

 

 

      ✓

Visual control of production wastes amount 

 

 

 

      ✓

Control of carrying out trainings on compliance with industrial safety requirements / compulsory medical check-ups of personnel

 

 

       ✓

Mitigation actions of project implementation

2 year

1 quarter

2 quarter

3 quarter

4 quarter

Measuring gas and dust emissions into the environment by special devices

Measuring noise level

Visual control of the amount of used raw materials

Measuring the level of environmental pollution with harmful chemicals

 ✓

Visual control of production wastes amount 

 ✓

Control of carrying out trainings on compliance with industrial safety requirements / compulsory medical check-ups of personnel

 ✓

Mitigation actions of project implementation

3 year

1 quarter

2 quarter

3 quarter

4 quarter

Measuring gas and dust emissions into the environment by special devices

Measuring noise level

Visual control of the amount of used raw materials

Measuring the level of environmental pollution with harmful chemicals

Visual control of production wastes amount 

Control of carrying out trainings on compliance with industrial safety requirements / compulsory medical check-ups of personnel

 

Capital expenditures and operating expenses, estimates and sources of funds will be calculated during subproject implementation, as these data depend on the purchased equipment, its location, operation mode, and the amount of produced product.

 

6. Integration of the Environmental Protection Plan into Project

This plan is specific in description of individual mitigation and monitoring actions, as well as integrated into the overall planning, design, budget, and project implementation. This integration is achieved by establishing the Environmental Protection Plan in the framework of the Project, so that the funding and control of the plan will be carried out along with other components.

 

1. GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE PROJECT AND PROJECT AREA

 

1.1. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

 

Project title

Subproject “Organization of production of original fragrant antibacterial detergents on the basis of essential oils” No APP-SSG-16/0645F.

 

Place of service

LLP “Phytoperfume”, Erzhanov Str., 41/2, Karaganda. Division of soap preparation satisfies space requirements and is equipped with the necessary infrastructure (heating, natural and artificial lighting, water, etc.).

 

Project goal regulating the planned activities      

The goal is a start-up of own production of antibacterial detergents on the basis of local essential oils with a broad spectrum of biological activity.

 

Project coverage and scope of activities

The result of this subproject, i.e. antibacterial detergents based on essential oils, will be introduced into consumer market of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Scope of activities of this subproject covers all the aspects of detergents production technology, starting from isolation of antibacterial essential oils from local plant raw material by the green technology rules to processing of industrial wastes and marketing of finished products.

To start the production it is required to prepare a building carrying out small construction works (installation of partitions, apertures, ceramic tiles facing, paints and varnishes coating, consolidation, fixing, smoothing of surfaces, applying special characteristics to the walls (heat-insulation, dampproofing, protection against aggressive substances). After the purchase of industrial equipment installation works are to be carried out (moving, lifting, assembly of processing equipment). The final stage implies commissioning works (preparation of equipment for the start of production process, start-up, testing and adjustment of operating parameters).

The first stage of production is the receipt of essential oils with antibacterial activity on the Essential oils extraction unit-Experimental (EOE-E unit) and Klevendzher's devices by hydro- and steam distillation methods as well as on the microwave NEOS unit. Then basic substances for soap production are prepared: essential oil with antibacterial activity - 2,5%; glycerin - 30%; sorbitol - 5%; sodium stearate - 6%; sodium laureth sulphate - 10%; EDTA - 0,1%; lauryl acid - 0,1%; stearic acid - 10%; NaCI - 0,5%; propylene glycol - 5%; TEA - 0,1%; distilled water - 25% of the loaded batch mass.

Basic substances are loaded into a mixing container for 3 hours, grind, put twice through the roll mills for uniformity. The batch is warmed up to 80°C and cooled down within 1 hour at 22-250C. The received batch goes by belt conveyer through the cutting unit which cuts the cooled-down mass into identical size pieces. Then the square pieces are loaded into the shaping unit where they are pressed and stamped to receive oval soaps with the company logo. Quality control is assured to soap samples, ready pieces are put into the collector and moved to packaging unit to wrap up in glossy paper and boxes.

 

1.2 LEGISLATION ANDADMINISTRATION

 

Nationallegislation

The planned activities are regulated by the RoK Law "On Civil Protection", chapter 14 (Ensuring industrial safety) as of April 11, 2014 No.188-V RoKL. According to this law industrial safety is ensured by the following:

1) establish and fulfill industrial safety requirements;

2) admit to application technologies, technical devices, materials conforming to the industrial safety requirements at hazardous production facilities;

3) admit to application hazardous technical devices conforming to the industrial safety requirements in the Republic of Kazakhstan territory;

4) declare industrial safety of hazardous production facility;

5) state supervision and production control in the field of industrial safety;

6) industrial safety expertise;

7) certify legal entities to be eligible to work in the field of industrial safety;

8) industrial safety monitoring;

9) maintain hazardous production facilities by professional Emergency Response Teams or Groups.

Electrical safety is regulated by the RoK Law "On Electric Power Industry" No. 588-II as of July 9, 2004 (with changes and amendments as of 28.12.2016) and also Occupational Health and Safety Management System: GOST 12.1.002-84 and GOST 12.1.019-79.

Fire safety is regulated by the RoK Preventive fire-fighting regulations PPB 08-97.

Sanitary standards and health requirements to laboratories are regulated by the Republic of Kazakhstan Code "On people’s health and a public health system" No. 193-IV as of September 18, 2009 (with changes and amendments as of 22.12.2016).

Industrial safety and labor protection are regulated by the Republic of Kazakhstan Labour Code (with changes and amendments as of 06.04.2016).

The relations in the field of environmental protection, restoration and preservation, natural resources use and reproduction at economic and other type of activities connected with the natural resources use and impact on the environment are regulated by the Republic of Kazakhstan Environmental Code No. 212 as of January 9, 2007.

In case of violations of the above-mentioned laws and regulations, the respective authorized bodies on behalf of RoK Ministry of Science Projects Management Group and Department of Ecology in Karaganda Region of Committee for environmental management, control and state inspection in oil-and-gas complex of the Ministry of Energy in Karaganda can make a comment or impose a fine. Failure to address comments before the deadline may result in financing termination and the return of previously received funds.

 

1.3 STATUS OF PROJECT DOCUMENTATION AND AVAILABILITY OF PERMITS

Charter of JSC “International Research and Production Holding “Phytochemistry” (adopted by the decision of executive board of JSC “National Scientific and Technology Holding “Parasat” (minutes of meeting No 3, 30.04.2009)

Partnership agreement No 1 dated 22.11.16 between JSC “International Research and Production Holding “Phytochemistry” and LLP “Phytoperfume”.  

The accreditation of LLP “Phytoperfume” is required to confirm the foundation of this legal entity for the immediate purposes of the subproject implementation. The limited liability partnership acts as a subject of research and scientific and technical activities. Certification of workplaces is also required.

Products themselves require compliance with the Interstate Standard GOST 28546-2002 "Solid toilet soap".

 

2. ENVIRONMENT DESCRIPTION (BASE LINE CONDITION)    

 

General description of environment on project site 

 Production will be organized on the existing enterprise base at the following address: Erzhanov Str., 41/2, Karaganda. There are no other enterprises on site. Working conditions are classified as harmful, i.e. negatively affecting employee’s health. According to the RoK Labour Code the following actions will be taken at workplaces to decrease harmful effects on employees: protective clothes and footwear, healthcare provision, safe work practices training, short working hours and additional leave.

Fauna objects (crows, sparrows, magpies, cockroaches, worms, spiders, etc.) live in free conditions.

Industrial environment implies the combination of factors affecting people’s working capacity in the course of their professional activity.

Soap production is not connected with the use or isolation of hazardous, toxic or extremely dangerous substances. Should the rules of production process established by technological instructions as per the technical regulations "Safety requirements to synthetic detergents and goods of household chemicals" No. 21 approved by the RoK government resolution as of March 4, 2008 be observed it is possible to provide normal working conditions for employees in the shops.

The first safety rule at a production facility is to keep workplace clean and tidy. Spilt fats, oils and especially soap make the floor slippery. Therefore, floor shall always be dry and clean. If fats or soap accidentally get spilt on the floor, they must be carefully wiped out to make the floor dry.

If an alkaline solution is spilt, the place should be covered with dry sawdust which then should be tidied by a metal scoop or shovel avoiding touching the sawdust, and thrown in a metal garbage can.

Then wash the floor with water and wipe it dry with a rag. In cases when the working area has a sewer ladder, it is possible to wash off alkaline in a ladder, carefully pouring water on the floor from a hose; your eyes shall be protected with glasses and your hands with rubber gloves. Besides cleaning the working place it is necessary to eliminate the causes that lead to the spilt liquid on the floor.

 

Physical environment

Lighting. Good lighting of production and housekeeping areas during soap production is crucial for safety, high performance and injuries prevention.

According to the existing standards window openings with glass frames should be provided in production areas with a constant presence of workers to provide natural lightning during the day. In production areas lighting should be 20-30 lx for conventional lamps (light bulbs) or 75-100 lx for fluorescent lamps (fluorescent bulbs). 

In special areas where more precise work is required, for example, the area of mechanical processing, stamping and wrapping soaps, lighting is increased to 50 lx (150 lx in case of fluorescent lamps). Lighting in storage areas should be maintained at 10-20 lx.

 

Ventilation

Maintaining necessary temperature and humidity conditions in soap production areas is done by means of balanced ventilation. The removal of water steam produced during the working processes at temperatures above 50-60°C is carried out through local vent-pipes (soap boilers, soap collectors, mixers for composition preparation, etc.). Dust removal occurring, for example, during unloading caustic ash from sacks or soap powders from drying chamber is usually carried out by induced ventilation. 

At workplaces with a high temperature, for example, near soap boilers local shower units shall be installed to create favorable conditions. Air velocity at workplace should be within 0.7-1.5 m/s due to the local spray throwers.

The surface of equipment and units where process is carried out at a temperature above 45°C (boiling equipment, soap collectors, dryers) is covered by heat insulation.

Noise level at a workplace will not exceed admissible values (80 dB) as per GOST 12.1.003-83, GOST 12.1.050-86.

 

         Social and cultural environment

The enterprise will function in the social-cultural environment created by the influence of a stable population growth in Kazakhstan and overall increase in cultural and educational level. Production of antibacterial soap will promote the expansion of domestic detergents market, healing of skin integument wounds and decrease in number of the diseases caused by various bacteria. Absence of ingredients forbidden in Islam in soap will also meet ethical standards and religious traditions of the believing citizens.

Human performance is influenced also by personal factors (mood, attitude to work, health). There are no direct measuring instruments of these factors on the work effectiveness. Indirect measuring instrument is the growth of soap production per time unit under constant conditions and high quality of workforce.

 

3. DEFININGPOTENTIALINFLUENCE

 

Antibacterial detergents produced within the frameworks of this subproject will contain natural essential oils, food dyes, glycerin, distilled water, stearic acid, sodium laureth sulphate, sodium stearate, sorbitol, propylene glycol, sodium chloride, lauric acid, TEA (triethanolamine), EDTA (ethylenediaminetetracetic acid). Among all components EDTA is considered damaging for the environment as it is poorly biodegradable and can concentrate heavy metals in water reservoirs, but as its content does not exceed 0.1% of the total product weight the use of EDTA is acceptable.

The other formulation: rendered beef fat, coconut oil, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide is very mobile in the soil and soluble in water where it is ionized/neutralized. It does not spread through air. It is not stable, capable of bioaccumulation or toxic substance.

Construction wastes accumulation, production wastes and dust, high noise level, and gas emissions due to the welding works have negative impact on the environment in the process of minor construction, installation and commissioning works. In order to avoid the environmental damage mitigation actions are taken.

The policy of the project promotes and supports natural habitat preservation and further actions for its conservation and ecological aspects improvement. The extent of potential impact on the environment is controlled, temporary and having a local character. Impact types of this project include the following: accumulation of construction (gas cylinders, solvents, paints, varnishes, glass- and slag wool) and production (spent-soap lye, soap tails) waste, waste paper; soil and air pollution by gases (fluorine hydride, nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide), dust, and also noise pollution. To minimize negative effects of the specified impacts actions were proposed to be taken according to Mitigation and Monitoring Plans. Taking safety precautions will allow to prevent fire and emergencies.

Project site is far from natural parks and wildlife areas, thus, project is not expected to impact the birds (crows, magpies, sparrows, etc.) and insects (spiders, cockroaches, worms, butterflies, flies, mosquitoes, etc.) habitat. Physical cultural resources (including archaeological, historical, and  religious sites) were not found in the vicinity of the workshop. As there is no building construction phase, vegetation (trees, bushes, etc.) will not be susceptible to destruction, there is also no need in  the resettlement of people living nearby either.

The main resources needed are as follows: electric power, heat energy, water supply, plant raw materials (table 1). Plant raw materials are prepared both from wild and cultivated essential-oil bearing plants. Plant raw materials are collected during expedition trips from May to September. 

There are 1025 types of essential-oil bearing plants in the Kazakhstani flora which  represent 77 families. The main families comprising the majority of essential-oil bearing plants are Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae. Wild-growing essential oil raw materials are collected across Kazakhstan.

 

Table 1 – Types of essential-oil bearing plant raw materials

 

#

type

Plant type

Collection site

Output,

( % from weight)

Number of identified compounds

Main compounds, (%)

1

AchilleamillefoliumL.

 

Karaganda region

0.33

120

camphor (16,0),

1,8-cineole (8,7),

borneol (10,0)

2

Ajaniafruticulosa (Ledeb.) Poljak.

Karaganda region

0.71

38

chamazulene (42.8),

1,8-cineole (18.8),

β-myrcene (7.4)

3

Artemisiacina Berg.

 

Shymkent region

1.59

17

1,8-cineole (84.5),

п-cymene (11.9)

 

4

Artemisiadracunculus L.

Karaganda region

0.2

150

sabinene (20.2),

trans-3(1-butenyl) - benzopyrone (10.3)

5

Artemisia glabella Kar. et Kir.

 

Karaganda region

0.1

70

1,8- cineole (10)

sabinilacetate (6.7), germacrene D (5.1)

6

Artemisialeucodes Schrenk.

Zhambyl region

 

1.57

50

camphor (81.1),

1,8- cineole (6.2)

7

JuniperussabinaL.

 

Karaganda region

0.83

68

sabinilacetate (39.2), elemol (11.2), sabinene (9.2)

8

Matricaria chamomilla L. («Karaganda» sort)

Karaganda region

0.39

25

Bisabol oxide A

 (20.4), chamazulene (13.0)

9

Mеnthapiperita L.

 

Almaty region

0.4

86

menthone (25.6), menthol (18.1), menthyl acetate (11.6)

10

Populusbalsamifera L.

 

North Kazakhstan region

2.0

72

Epi-a-Bisabolol

(14.0),

2-phenylethyl 2- methylbutyrate (12.5), g- curcumine (10.0)

11

Рinus  sylvestris L.

 

Zhambyl region

 

16

19

a-pinene (70.4),

b-pinene (7.1)

12

Tanacetumvulgare L.

 

Karaganda region

0.5

30

sabinilacetate (21.7), β- thujone (18.7), п- cymene (11.8), spathulenol (6.1)

13

Thymusvulgaris L.

 

Karaganda region

0.3

100

thymol (58.6),

γ-terpinene (7.5)

 

The cultivated raw materials are collected on herbs and natural flora cultivation sites of Holding “Phytochemistry” where 152 plants, out of which 63 are endemic, grow (Figure 1), as well as in the pilot farm of the Karaganda Pharmaceutical Plant (sanatorium “Bereznyaki” of Bukhar-Zhyrau district, Karaganda region) (Figure 2).

 

Figure 1 – Cultivation of Ajania fruticulosa raw materials on collection

site of JSC “IRPH “Phytochemistry”

     

Figure 2 – Artemisia glabella Kar.et Kir. and its crops in the pilot farm of the Karaganda Pharmaceutical Plant (sanatorium “Bereznyaki” of Bukhar-Zhyrau district, Karaganda region)

 

During the cultivated raw materials growth the chemicals used for pest control and various plants diseases, parasites, weeds; grain and grain products, wood, cotton products, wool, skin pests; pets ectoparasites, and carriers of dangerous diseases for person and animals were not applied as the above-mentioned raw materials are medicinal and, thus, the use of chemicals and pesticides is forbidden.

 

Collection of plant raw materials

Plants or their parts are collected during the periods when they contain the highest dosage of active compounds or when the greatest biomass with a high content of medicinal substances can be obtained. Their content dynamics depending on the plants vegetation period is studied in advance, in some cases daily dynamics is also considered. Harvest time depends on the geographical zone and climatic conditions.

Aerial portion of plants (leaves, flower-buds, inflorescences, fur needle, buds) is collected during the day (when the plant dried from dew) and in dry weather only. Most frequently plant raw materials are collected during the blooming period when, as a rule, it is possible to procure the largest plant’s mass with a high content of active compounds.

Aerial portion of perennial plants is collected carefully not to damage the underground part (plants’ recovery growing point). Only developed green leaves are prepared from the budding till the end of blooming period.

Flowers (and inflorescences) are collected at the beginning of plants blooming (for example, chamomile, teil, arnica) before they fall, whenever coloring of flowers is preserved and the content of active compounds is high.

Buds are collected in the early spring during their formation.

Primary processing of raw materials consists in elimination of harvest defects, that is the removal of deficiencies, impurities, etc.

Usually impurities imply the following:

- raw materials parts with the changed coloring (for example, grown brown, turned black, faded);

- other plant parts not envisaged by Raw Material Specifications (RMS);

- organic impurities (parts of other nontoxic plants);

- mineral impurities (dirt, sand, stones).

Leaves are sorted out to remove defective ones and foreign impurities. Flowers lost due colourings, unnecessary parts of flowers or inflorescences, and leaves are removed from flower collection.   In case tops were cut off from teil, inflorescences shall be plucked off too (together with a leafy bract). As chamomile calathids/heads are extremely fragile, a very careful sorting is acceptable (selection of calathids of similar types).

If essential oil is localized in endogenous secretory structures, the raw material can be procured any time of the day.

Raw materials are dried out naturally in the shadowed place outdoors or artificially. Temperature conditions of artificial drying at exogenous localization of essential oil  are 30-35 °C, at endogenous - 35-40 °C. If sesquiterpenoids and aromatic compounds prevail in the essential oil, drying temperature up to 45 °C and sometimes up to 50 °C is allowed.

Raw materials are spread a thick layer. Drying process has to take much time as biosynthesis and essential oil accumulation goes on in the plant raw materials during drying out.

Essential oil raw materials shall be stored in compliance with the Sanitary rules and norms SanPiN No. 232 of 19.03.15б, and stored and transported according to the State Register of medicinal agents, medical devices and equipment No. 262 of 24.04.15 at a temperature not exceeding 180C.

 

Essential oils extraction on various devices

 

Essential oils extraction on Klevendzher's device

According to the StatePharmacopoeia essential oil extraction (hydrodistillation) was carried out on the modified Klevendzher's device consisting of a distillation round-bottomed flask with a capacity of 1 dm3, the steam-conducting curved tube, a cooler, a receiver with the drain valve and tube. 15-20 grams of Artemisia glabella Kar. et Kir. were placed in the flask, 300 ml of water were poured, the flask was connected through the ground glass joint to the steam-conducting tube and the graduated tube was filled with water through the tap by means of a hose with a funnel. The flask content was heated to vigorous boiling and boiled with such an intensity that the speed of distillate running off had to be 60-65 drops per minute within 2 hours. In 5 minutes after the completion of distillation the volume of essential oil was measured. For this purpose the valve was opened and a portion of distillate was drained off to the level of graduated tube scale divisions. Percentage was determined by the volume method (Figure 3).

 

Figure 3 – Essential oil extraction on the laboratory unit

 

 Essential oils extraction on the experimental industrial EOE-E unit (Essential oils extraction-Experimental unit)

            We have patented fundamentally new unit for essential oils production from the plant raw materials (The RoK Patent No. 10449 of 03.05.2001. Essential oils extraction unit from the plant raw materials. Adekenov S.M., Atazhanova G.A., Itzhanova H. I., Fischer E. G.)

The essential oil raw materials (from 5 to 10 kg) are placed in the Essential oils extraction (EOE-E) unit distilled over with water steam. The steamer is attached to a steam generator through the nozzle located in the lower part of the steamer. A cartridge is filled with basic material and installed in the steamer, a cover is placed on the steamer, a steam pipe is installed between the steamer and a condenser. The cooling water supply tubing to the condenser is assembled. Voltage is applied to the steam generator, the pump is turned on the parts, block valve is then opened and consumption of the vaporescent liquid is regulated by the needle valve according to the rotameter. Cooling water is supplied to the condenser. Temperature shall be checked using the thermometer installed on the steamer, the moment of steam intake in the steamer shall be registered at the temperature 1000C.

At the beginning of steam generator work it is recommended to control the vaporescent liquid supply by intermittent portions to get the continuous steam generation mode. It is absolutely required to connect vacuum gauge and monitor the vacuum supply.

Hot water steam from the steam generator is discharged to the steamer during 3 hrs., and going up through raw materials it carries away the essential oil. Passing through the cooler water and essential oil steam is condensed and accumulated in the receiver jar. Essential oil is separated from water, dried with waterless sodium sulphate and weighed.

For example, raw materials of Artemisia glabella Kar. et Kir. subjected to essential oils extraction are placed into a container. Its bottom and cover are perforated to provide a free steam flow through raw materials. Container loaded with raw materials is installed into the steamer and closed with a lid. All contact surfaces between the steamer, container and lid shall be hermetically sealed to provide the directed operating steam flow through the raw materials.

After loading raw materials the vacuum is set in all enclosed volumes of the unit as per production procedures which is controlled by the vacuum manometer. Once the required vacuum is set, the voltage is applied to the low-temperature steam generator, and it is time to prepare water on the unit and discharge it into the boiler.  Preparation of water implies its treatment, creation of a discharge head and a metered flow to the boiler. Water discharged to the boiler starts to boil at a temperature defined by the vacuum value.

 

The generated steam at the expense of vacuum gets into the steamer and penetrates through the raw materials loaded into the container. Container’s bottom and lid perforation allows free steam flow through raw materials. Sealed connections between the container, steamer and lid eliminate the outside air being sucked in. Operating steam temperature shall be checked by the thermometer. The set operating steam temperature is maintained by the additional steam heating device. The device, in particular, can be performed in the form of a resistance coil applied to the section of operating steam supply tubing to the steamer. Regulating voltage at the entrance of the device it is possible to create the required operating steam temperature as per production procedures at the entrance of the steamer.

Water steam passing through plant raw materials carries away essential oils and comes to the cooler. Condensed in the cooler water steam and essential oils come to the receiver-sump where essential oils and water are separated, i.e. essential oils come to the surface, and water remains below. In the process of essential oils accumulation they are poured in the receiver jar for essential oils, and spent water steam condensate gradually comes to the receiver.

At the bottom of the steamer heavy oil fractions can accumulate that do not leave with the steam. Operating steam condensate can also accumulate at the bottom of the steamer as it forms at the beginning of production process when a low-temperature steam contacts with colder elements of steamer and container. This condensate is periodically discharged to the receiver.

Residual gases in the cooler go through the low-temperature condenser due to the vacuum, where coolant may have temperature considerably below 00 C.

Essential oil traces which were not condensed in the condenser go to the special device to be neutralized by filters.

This pilot unit for essential oils extraction was fabricated and put in operation at the Karaganda Pharmaceutical Plant.

 

Figure 4 - Experimental industrial unit for the essential oils extraction (EOE-E)

 

Essential oils extraction on the NEOS Microwave unit (Italy)

NEOS is a system of the microwave solid-phase extraction, 230V-50Hz, a set consists of 1 magnetron with the radiation homogenization system (Figure 5). The system cabinet was specifically designed from steel 1 mm with the steel rotor chassis, no plastic details; the cabinet is not a modified version of the home microwave oven. There are 4 microswitches, i.e. the radiation controller on a cabinet door, holder for the solid-phase extraction reactor, automatic temperature control inside the reactor with IR sensor, the circulation cooler; the reactor holder is provided with the auto-alignment function, a built-in laser marker of the reactor position, a built-in system of magnetic stirring with the continuously adjustable speed, a built-in color touch-screen terminal in the system cabinet.

 

Air-dry essential oil raw materials are loaded into the NEOS unit glassware and essential oil is distilled at a temperature of 100ºС , atmospheric pressure (0 kgf/cm2) and radiation capacity of 550 W in an isolated system within 1,5 hours. Then the raw materials are unloaded and dried out.

Figure 5 - the NEOS Microwave Essential Oil Extraction unit

Essential oils extraction on the Module Alpha-Ester unit

This unit will be purchased for the production of antibacterial detergents (Kaliningrad, Russia) (Figure 6).

In the Module Alpha-Ester unit developed by the Russian scientists it is steam that ensures the fullness of extraction. Condensate is automatically separated on essential oil and water extract in a gravitational separator. The amount of essential oil raw materials for one batch is 0,16 cubic meters. Steam production is up to 20 l/h. Cycle period is 1 hour 20 minutes. Overall production is up to 3 liters of essential oil (raw) an hour. The line designed on a framework occupies only 2 m2.

Content of essential oils in plants is variable and, therefore, it is required to extract them as soon as possible when they are at maximum. Steam ensures the fullness, promptness, and efficiency of essential oils extraction. Condensate is automatically separated on essential oil and water hydrolat in the separator. The unit itself is a compact and mobile structure on wheels. The module is made of food stainless steel. The unit is hermetically sealed and works in a steam distillation mode in the oxygen-free environment. The complex is equipped for distillation, separation and sorption. The end product is waterless oil with a long storage period.

The unit is user-friendly, multifunctional and has a bright industrial design with modern accessories. The transfer of oil-processing technologies, chemistry of highly purified materials was realized in the unit, special sorbents are applied for fine purification of oils. Wheels allow to move it freely in the laboratory. Economic performance of the unit is very high.

Figure 6 – Half-way Module Alpha-Ester unit for the essential oils extraction 

 

All extracted essential oils are packed into glass or steel containers, filled to the top, sealed up. They shall be stored in a cool shadowed place and controlled annually.

 

4. MITIGATION AND MONITORING PLANS

Mitigation 

Construction stage

Item

Expected environmental impact

Proposedmitigationaction

Responsibility for mitigationactions

Period of mitigation actions realization

1.  Minor construction works

Construction wastes accumulation

Arrange the place of gathering and routes of construction wastes removal. Install the storage hoppers for wastes gathering,  transportation of wastes by means of closed trays; wastes and extra soil removal in designated areas. Dyes with toxic ingredients or solvents on lead basis are not planned to be used.

Collecting and removal of construction wastes will be carried out by specialized licensed companies

 

During the process and upon completion of construction works

 

 

2. Installation of  production equipment and units

 Hazardous substances emissions into environment (fluorine hydride, nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide, dust, construction waste, etc.)

Supplying production division with ventilation system. Organization of proper storage and transportation of flammable and emitting hazardous substances materials

LLP “Phytoperfume”

During the process and upon completion of installation works

3. Commissioning works

Rise of noise level

Location of process equipment in the center of the room to minimize noise level. Soundproofing  of "noisy" production workshops from other facilities. The usage of acoustic hoods for gas turbines to ensure that the of noise level does not exceed 70 dB at a distance of 100 m.

 

LLP “Phytoperfume”

At the initial stage of equipment operation

Project work stage

1. Accumulated output of essential oils with antibacterial activity

Formation of used plant raw material

The use of complex, non-waste processing technologies of essential-oil raw materials, namely the use of waste raw materials for isolation of other compounds

JSC “International Research and Production Holding “Phytochemistry”

Every work shift

2. Preparation of basic substances for soap production

Environmental pollution with harmful chemicals (caustic soda, potassium hydroxide, EDTA)

Refusal from toxical substances. Carrying out activities to prevent getting pollutants into water reservoirs and soil. Reducing enterprise wastes through the use of closed cycles

LLP “Phytoperfume”

During preparation of basic substances

3. Mixing of original substances in a mixer

Environmental emissions of waste products (spent-soap lye) and harmful substances in case of emergency

Removal of waste products with the lowest possible risk to the environment. The use of waste water treatment and control of air pollution. Strict compliance with process parameters of production. Taking actions to prevent emergencies

LLP “Phytoperfume”

In the process of mixing basic substances

4. Milling

Formation of special wastes (stripped soap)

Reducing the amount of wastes during production. Reducing the wastes through  the sorting. Recycling materials received from wastes

LLP “Phytoperfume”

In the process of milling

5. Soap cooling in cooling unit

-

-

-

-

6. Cutting soap in automated device

Formation of soap tails

Reducing of wastes amount during production. Reducing the wastes through  the sorting. Recycling materials received from wastes

LLP “Phytoperfume”

In the process of soap cutting

7. Soap molding

Formation of special wastes

(stripped soap)

Reducing of wastes amount during production. Reducing the wastes through  the sorting. Recycling materials received from wastes

LLP “Phytoperfume”

In the process of soap molding

8. Soap stamping

-

-

-

-

9. Quality control of finished product

Environmental pollution with harmful solvents (acetone, benzene)

Carry out activities to prevent getting polluting solvents into water reservoirs and soil

LLP “Phytoperfume”

In the process of analysis

10. Soap packing

Waste paper formation

Wastes recycling and salvaging, sending to waste paper receiving centre.

Gathering and removal of construction wastes will be carried out by specialized licensed companies

Upon completion of soap packing

All project stages

Health and safety of employees

Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for personnel (gloves, glasses, masks). Monthly trainings on compliance with industrial safety requirements at workplace. Appointing Safety Engineer at workplace.

LLP «Phytoperfume»

Every work shift

 

Monitoring Plan

Construction stage

Which

parameter must be controlled?

Where

the monitoring parameter should be tracked?

How

monitoring parameter should be tracked (what should be measured and how)?

When

monitoring parameter should be tracked (time and frequency)?

By whom

this parameter should be monitored (responsibility)?

1.  Minor construction works

At construction work site

Visual assessment of the amount of construction wastes

During the process of minor construction works

Workers

2.  Installation of  production equipment and devices

At the place of installation works

Measuring by special devices the amount of fluorine hydride, nitrogen dioxide, carbon oxide and dust emissions into the environment

During the process of installation works

Industrial or independent accredited laboratories

3. Commissioning works

Within 100 meters from construction site (on the side closest to the residential area)

Measuring by noise analyser

Once prior to workshop start-up and annually during operational period

Industrial or independent accredited laboratories

Project work stage

1. Accumulated output of essential oils with antibacterial activity

At extraction of essential oils unit

Visual assessment of the amount of waste raw material

During work shift

Workers

2. Preparation of basic substances for soap production

At production workshop

Measuring the level of environmental pollution with harmful chemicals (caustic soda, potassium hydroxide, EDTA)

According to the ecological monitoring rules

Industrial or independent accredited laboratories

3. Mixing of basic substances in a mixer

At production workshop

Measuring the level of waste products (spent-soap lye) emissions into the environment and harmful substances in case of emergency

According to the ecological monitoring rules

Industrial or independent accredited laboratories

   4. Milling

At milling area

Visual assessment of stripped soap

During work shift

Workers

5. Soap cooling in cooling unit

-

-

-

-

6. Cutting soap in automated device

At cutting soap unit  

Visual assessment of soap tails

During work shift

Workers

7. Soap molding

At soap molding area

Visual assessment of stripped soap

During work shift

Workers

8. Soap stamping

-

-

-

-

  9. Quality control of finished product

Analytical laboratory of quality control

Measuring pollution with harmful solvents (acetone, benzene)

During the process of analysis

Workers

10. Soap packing

At soap packing area

Visual assessment of waste paper

During work shift

Workers

 All project stages

At the workplace

Monitoring of trainings on compliance with industrial safety requirements/compulsory medical check-up of employees

 

Monthly/ annually

Safety Engineer/

medical institutions

 

 Public Hearings

 

The Environmental Management Plan was presented and can be found in the open access in the Russian http://www.phyto.kz/ru/about/phytoperfume.html and English http://www.phyto.kz/ru/about/phytorerfume.html languages on the subproject website.

On December 14, 2016 Public Hearing was held where representatives of the Institute of Organic Synthesis and Coal Chemistry (IOSCC), the Chemical-Metallurgical Institute (CMI), Karaganda State Medical University (KSMU), JSC “IRPH “Phytochemistry”, and also local community from the nearby houses studied The Environmental Management Plan, asked questions, made comments and expressed wishes. The Minutes of Meeting of Public Hearings is attached.